Malawi is a country with an approximate area of 118 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 12.337 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 47% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 75.5% for men and 48.7% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Somaliland (Somali: Somaliland, Arabic: سُومَالِلَاند Ṣūmālilānd or أرض الصومال Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl) is an unrecognised self-declared de facto sovereign state that is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia. The government of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the British Somaliland protectorate, which was independent on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland, before uniting with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic.

Somalia is a country with an approximate area of 638 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 10.312 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 99 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 48% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 25.1% for men and 13.4% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

United Republic of Tanzania is a country with an approximate area of 945 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 37.671 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 45% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 85.2% for men and 69.2% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Guinea-Bissau is a country with an approximate area of 36 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 1.537 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 47% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 54.1% for men and 23.5% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Burundi is a country with an approximate area of 28 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 7.068 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 96 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 45% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 57.7% for men and 43.6% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country with an approximate area of 2345 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 54.417 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 47% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 88.9% for men and 77.1% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Niger is a country with an approximate area of 1267 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 12.415 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 102 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 50% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 3% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 25.1% for men and 9.3% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Sierra Leone is a country with an approximate area of 72 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 5.169 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 97 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 44% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 45% for men and 18% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Madagascar is a country with an approximate area of 587 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 17.901 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 99 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 44% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 73.6% for men and 59.7% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Zambia is a country with an approximate area of 753 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 10.924 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 99 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 47% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 86.3% for men and 73.8% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Eritrea is a country with an approximate area of 118 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 4.296 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 99 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 45% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 67.3% for men and 44.5% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Liberia is a country with an approximate area of 111 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 3.487 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 100 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 47% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 72.3% for men and 39.3% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Ethiopia is a country with an approximate area of 1104 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 72.42 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 99 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 45% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 49.2% for men and 33.8% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Mali is a country with an approximate area of 1240 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 13.408 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 49% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 26.7% for men and 11.9% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Benin is a country with an approximate area of 113 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 6.918 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 97 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 45% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 4% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 54.8% for men and 25.5% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Nigeria is a country with an approximate area of 924 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 127.117 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 102 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 44% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 5% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 74.4% for men and 59.4% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Central African Republic is a country with an approximate area of 623 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 3.912 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 95 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 43% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 6% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 64.7% for men and 33.5% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Sao Tome and Principe is a country with an approximate area of 1 thousand sq. km. (UNO, 2001). Its population is 0.164 million, and the sex ratio (men per hundred women) is 98 (UNO, 2004). The proportion of population under the age of 15 years is 41% (UNO, 2004), and the proportion of population above the age of 60 years is 6% (WHO, 2004). The literacy rate is 85% for men and 62% for women (UNESCO/MoH, 2004).

Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic). Western Sahara (US Listeni/ˌwɛstərn səˈhærə/, UK /ˌwɛstən səˈhɑrə/, Arabic: الصحراء الغربية Aṣ-Ṣaḥrā’ al-Gharbīyah, Spanish: Sahara Occidental, Berber: Taneẓroft Tutrimt) is a disputed territory in North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the extreme northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres (103,000 sq mi). It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly consisting of desert flatlands. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, many of whom live in El Aaiún (also spelled Laâyoune), the largest city in Western Sahara.